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Call of Cthulhu is a horror fiction role-playing game based on the story of the same name written by H. P. Lovecraft and the so-called Cthulhu Mythos the story inspired. The game, often abbreviated as CoC, is published by Chaosium.
The setting of Call of Cthulhu is a darker version of our world, based on H.P. Lovecraft's observation that, "The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown." There are three primary eras of the original (non d20) game: the 1920s, the setting of many of Lovecraft's stories; the 1890's Gaslight supplements, a blend of occult and Holmsian mystery and mostly set in England; and modern conspiracy (Cthulhu Now). Recent additions include 1000 AD (Cthulhu: Dark Ages), and Roman times (Cthulhu Invictus). The protagonists may also travel to places that are not of this earth, represented in the (Dreamlands).
The players take the roles of ordinary people, drawn into the realm of the mysterious: detectives, criminals, scholars, artists, war veterans, etc. Often, happenings begin innocently enough, until more and more of the workings behind the scenes are revealed. As the characters learn more of the true horrors of the world and the irrelevance of humanity, their sanity inevitably withers away (the game actually includes a mechanism for determining how damaged a character's sanity is at any given point). To access the tools they need to defeat the horrors - mystic knowlege and magic - the characters must be willing to give up some of the their sanity for the greater good.
The above description is from the Wikipedia entry on Call of Cthulhu, which can be reached by clicking the first link.
Delta FilesCARP runs a continuing, shared-world version of contemporary Call of Cthulhu called Delta Files. It uses the Delta Green rules.
Delta Files ScenariosOperation Sunday by Eric Duffy